Buy Propionat 100 online

New Articles About PROPIONATE 100

New Articles About PROPIONATE 100/ Order Propionat Online

 

New Articles About PROPIONATE 100, Propionate has been reported to exert antidepressant effects, but high-dose propionate may induce autism-like symptoms in experimental animals through induction of dysbiosis of neurotransmitters. The bi-directional effects of propionate seem to be dose-dependent. However, due to the pathological discrepancies between depression and autism, conclusions drawn from autism may not be simply transferable to depression.

High-Dose Propionate

The effect and underlying action mechanisms of high-dose propionate on depression remains undetermined. Furthermore, To investigate the effects of propionate on depression, propionate dose gradients were intravenously administrated to rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 1 week.  In Results of these behavioral tests demonstrate that low-dose propionate (2 mg/kg body weight/day) induces antidepressant effect through bodyweight recovery, elevated reward-seeking behaviors, and reduced depression-like behaviors, while high-dose propionate (200 mg/kg body weight/day) induces prodepressant effects opposite of those of low-dose propionate. Also, A comprehensive profiling of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus demonstrated that CUMS induces reduction of NE (Norepinephrine), DA (Dopamine). GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) was recovered by low-dose propionate, while high-dose propionate exerted more complicated effects on neurotransmitters, including reduction of NE, DA, 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Tryptophan, and increase of GABA, Kynurenine, Homovanillic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-methoxytyramine. Moreover, The neurotransmitters disturbed by high-dose propionate suggest metabolic disorders in the hippocampus, which were confirmed by the clear group separation in PCA of metabolomic profiling. The results of this study demonstrate the double-edged dose-dependent effects of propionate on depression and suggest potential cumulative toxicity of propionate as a food additive to mood disorders.

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